Research Papers

Development of Smart Tooling Concepts Applied to Ultraprecision Machining

[+] Author and Article Information
Chao Wang

Warwick Manufacturing Group (WMG),
International Automotive Research Centre,
The University of Warwick,
Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
e-mail: c.wang.1@warwick.ac.uk

Kai Cheng

Institute of Materials and Manufacturing,
Brunel University London,
Uxbridge, London UB8 3PH, UK
e-mail: kai.cheng@brunel.ac.uk

Richard Rakowski

Institute of Materials and Manufacturing,
Brunel University London,
Uxbridge, London UB8 3PH, UK
e-mail: richard.rakowski@brunel.ac.uk

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received September 27, 2016; final manuscript received January 12, 2017; published online March 17, 2017. Editor: Jian Cao.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 5(2), 021003 (Mar 17, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: JMNM-16-1055; doi: 10.1115/1.4035807 History: Received September 27, 2016; Revised January 12, 2017

This paper presents smart tooling concepts applied to ultraprecision machining, particularly through the development of smart tool holders, two types of smart cutting tools, and a smart spindle for high-speed drilling and precision turning purposes, respectively. The smart cutting tools presented are force-based devices, which allow measuring the cutting force in real-time. By monitoring the cutting force, a suitable sensor feedback signal can be captured, which can then be applied for the smart machining. Furthermore, an overview of recent research projects on smart spindle development is provided, demonstrating that signal feedback is very closely correlated to the drilling through a multilayer composite board. Implementation aspects on the proposed smart cutting tool are also explored in the application of hybrid dissimilar material machining.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Tlusty, J. , and Andrews, G. , 1983, “ A Critical Review of Sensors for Unmanned Machining,” Ann. CIRP, 32(2), pp. 563–572. [CrossRef]
Weck, M. , 1983, “ Machine Diagnostics in Automated Production,” J. Manuf. Syst., 2(2), pp. 101–106. [CrossRef]
Cheng, K. , and Huo, D. H. , 2013, Micro Cutting: Fundamentals and Applications, Wiley, Chichester, UK, Chap. 1.
Feng, P. F. , Yu, D. W. , Wu, Z. J. , and Uhlmann, E. , 2008, “ Jaw-Chuck Stiffness and Its Influence on Dynamic Clamping Force During High-Speed Turning,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 48(11), pp. 1268–1275. [CrossRef]
Shin, W. C. , Ro, S. K. , Park, H. W. , and Park, J. K. , 2009, “ Development of a Micro/Meso-Tool Clamp Using a Shape Memory Alloy for Application in Micro-Spindle Units,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 49(7–8), pp. 579–585. [CrossRef]
Westwind Air Bearing, 2007, “ Air Bearing Technology,” Westwind Air Bearings, Poole, Dorset, UK, accessed Feb. 18, 2016, http://westwind-airbearings.com/graphics/pcb/D1722%20160K.pdf
Stein, J. L. , and Huh, K. , 2002, “ Monitoring Cutting Forces in Turning: A Model: Base Approach,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 124(1), pp. 26–31. [CrossRef]
Alfred, P. , 2000, “ A Review of Wireless SAW Sensors,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 47(2), pp. 317–322. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Donohoe, B. , Geraghty, D. , and O'Donnell, G. E. , 2011, “ Wireless Calibration of a Surface Acoustic Wave Resonator as a Strain Sensor,” IEEE Trans. Sens. J., 11(4), pp. 1026–1032. [CrossRef]
Bhandari, B. , Hong, Y. S. , Yoon, H. S. , Moon, J. S. , Pham, M. Q. , Lee, G. B. , Huang, Y. C. , Linke, B. S. , Dornfeld, D. A. , and Ahn, S. H. , 2013, “ Development of a Micro-Drilling Burr-Control Chart for PCB Drilling,” Precis. Eng., 38(1), pp. 221–229. [CrossRef]
Abele, E. , Altintas, Y. , and Brecher, C. , 2010, “ Machine Tool Spindle Units,” Ann. CIRP, 59(2), pp. 781–802. [CrossRef]
Wang, C. , Cheng, K. , Chen, X. , Minton, T. , and Rakowski, R. , 2014, “ Design of an Instrumented Smart Cutting Tool and Its Implementation and Application Perspectives,” Smart Mater. Struct., 23(3), pp. 623–626. [CrossRef]
Huo, D. , Cheng, K. , and Wardle, F. , 2010, “ Design of a Five-Axis Ultra-Precision Micro-Milling Machine–UltraMill—Part 1: Holistic Design Approach, Design Considerations and Specifications,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 47, pp. 867–877. [CrossRef]
Huo, D. , Cheng, K. , and Wardle, F. , 2010, “ Design of a 5-Axis Ultra precision Micro-Milling Machine–Ultramill—Part 2: Integrated Dynamic Modelling, Design Optimization and Analysis,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 47, pp. 879–890. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The conventional mechanical collet system with critical components displayed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic assembly of the smart tool holder and (b) finite element analysis of the radial displacement of centrifugal arm and the gripping pressure on the drill bit at 20 k rpm spindle speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Torque measurement setup and (b) the relationship between the axial push force and the torque on the static torque testing of the smart tool holder

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Piezoelectric sensor-based smart cutting tool comprises the single-layer piezoelectric sensor, transmitter, receiver, and data acquisition device and (b) calibration of the piezoelectric sensor-based smart tooling against the dynamometer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Fly cutter integrated with the SAW sensor and antenna

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Experimental setup including the smart fly cutter, the workpiece, the dynamometer, and the interrogation and (b) comparison on the cutting force between the dynamometer and the smart fly cutter

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Multilayer PCB drilling with the smart high-speed spindle: (a) D1790-08 S (AC motor), (b) drill bit size 0.075–6.35 mm, and (c) drilling through multilayer PCB with a measure of axial load and axial displacement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The spatial movement of the drill tip while drilling the multilayer board in real-time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The ultra precision high-speed milling machine with the high-speed air spindle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Shaft motions with certain speeds (a) general form of whirl generated by static unbalance (cylindrical) and (b) dynamic unbalance (conical)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In