Research Papers

On the Development of a Chip Breaker in a Metal-Matrix Polycrystalline Diamond Insert: Finite Element Based Design With ns-Laser Ablation and Machining Verification

[+] Author and Article Information
Ahmed Elkaseer

c/Iñaki Goenaga 5,
Eibar 20600, Gipuzkoa, Spain;
Department of Production Engineering and
Mechanical Design,
Faculty of Engineering,
Port Said University,
Port Fuad 42523, Egypt
e-mail: ahmed.mohamed@eng.psu.edu.eg

Jon Lambarri

c/Iñaki Goenaga 5,
Eibar 20600, Gipuzkoa, Spain
e-mail: jon.lambarri@tekniker.es

Jon Ander Sarasua

c/Iñaki Goenaga 5,
Eibar 20600, Gipuzkoa, Spain
e-mail: jonander.sarasua@tekniker.es

Itxaso Cascón

c/Iñaki Goenaga 5,
Eibar 20600, Gipuzkoa, Spain
e-mail: itxaso.cascon@tekniker.es

1Correspomding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received December 14, 2016; final manuscript received May 25, 2017; published online June 13, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Sangkee Min.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 5(3), 031007 (Jun 13, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: JMNM-16-1071; doi: 10.1115/1.4036933 History: Received December 14, 2016; Revised May 25, 2017

This paper reports the development of an original design of chip breaker in a metal-matrix polycrystalline diamond (MMPCD) insert brazed into a milling tool. The research entailed finite element (FE) design, laser simulation, laser fabrication, and machining tests. FE analysis was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of different designs of chip breaker, under specified conditions when milling aluminum alloy (Al A356). Then, the ablation performance of an MMPCD workpiece was characterized by ablating single trenches under different conditions. The profiles of the generated trenches were analyzed and fed into a simulation tool to examine the resultant thickness of ablated layers for different process conditions, and to predict the obtainable shape when ablating multilayers. Next, the geometry of the designated chip breaker was sliced into a number of layers to be ablated sequentially. Different ablation scenarios were experimentally investigated to identify the optimum processing conditions. The results showed that an ns laser utilized in a controllable manner successfully produced the necessary three-dimensional feature of an intricate chip breaker with high surface quality (Ra in the submicron range), tight dimensional accuracy (maximum dimensional error was less than 4%), and in an acceptable processing time (≈51 s). Finally, two different inserts brazed in milling tools, with and without the chip breaker, were tested in real milling trials. Superior performance of the insert with chip breaker was demonstrated by the curled chips formed and the significant reduction of obtained surface roughness compared to the surface produced by the insert without chip breaker.

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Fig. 1

Accessible area for laser processing

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Fig. 2

Geometric parameters for the cross section of a curved groove chip breaker: rake angle α, land width a, rake radius of curvature R, tool-chip contact length L, and groove width W

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Fig. 3

First step of FE study to obtain the ideal tool shape: (a) detached chip simulation with the tool being a differential volume and (b) ideal tool geometry

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Fig. 4

Simulations for different rake angles: (a) α = 0 deg, (b) α = 20 deg, and (c) α = 30 deg

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Fig. 5

Tool–workpiece contact area in the chip formation process (a) a = 0 mm, (b) a = 0.075 mm, and (c) a = 0.15 mm

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Fig. 6

Natural radius of curvature of the chip and tool-chip contact length from a simulation without chip breaker, where rake angle α = 20 deg and land width, a = 0 mm

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Fig. 7

Chip curling effect depending on rake radius of curvature at (a) R = 1 mm, (b) R = 2 mm, and (c) R = 3 mm

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Fig. 8

Final geometry of chip breaker: (a) two-dimensional cross section (dimensions are in millimeter) and (b) 3D geometry

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Fig. 9

Chip curling effect and cutting force: (a) for a flat insert and (b) for the final geometry of the chip breaker

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Fig. 10

Chip curling effect, against the workpiece, when machining brass with a tool including a chip breaker especially designed for Al A356

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Fig. 11

Filling-path strategy follow (arrows indicate filling path direction for each ablated layer)

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Fig. 12

Focal distance settings: (a) focal plane maintained in workpiece surface, (b) focal plane maintained at the middle of the workpiece, and (c) workpiece is moved upward after each five traverses of the laser

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Fig. 13

Setup for milling trials of aluminum workpiece

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Fig. 14

Generated trenches for (a) highest power of 40 W and lowest scanning speed of 0.3 m/s, (b) highest power of 40 W and highest scanning speed of 1.0 m/s, (c) lowest power of 24 W and lowest scanning speed of 0.3 m/s, and (d) lowest power of 24 W and highest scanning speed of 1 m/s

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Fig. 15

Average generic profile for the range of laser powers used

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Fig. 16

Simulation of the effect of overlapping distance on the ablated layer at laser power 32 and 40 W, scanning speeds of 500 and 800 mm/s, and overlapping distances of 5 and 15 μm

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Fig. 17

Schematic of the general effect of ablated layer thickness on generated surface roughness: (a) thinner ablated layer and (b) thicker ablated layer

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Fig. 18

Comparison between (a) simulation predictions and (b) experimental results when 12 μm overlap distance was applied with scanning speed of 0.8 m/s and laser power 40 W

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Fig. 19

Simulation of ablation of 50 successive layers

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Fig. 20

The results obtained for the chip breaker

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Fig. 21

Generated chips: (a) uncurled chips obtained with insert without chip breaker and (b) curled chips obtained with insert with chip breaker



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