Research Papers

Fabrication of TiO2 Thin Film-Based Fresnel Zone Plates by Nanosecond Laser Direct Writing

[+] Author and Article Information
Tahseen Jwad

School of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Birmingham,
Edgbaston B15 2TT, Birmingham, UK
e-mail: taj355@bham.ac.uk

Sunan Deng

Laboratory of Applied Photonics Devices,
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne,
Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland,
e-mail: susan1988sgy@gmail.com

Haider Butt

School of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Birmingham,
Edgbaston B15 2TT, Birmingham, UK
e-mail: H.Butt@bham.ac.uk

Stefan Dimov

School of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Birmingham,
Edgbaston B15 2TT, Birmingham, UK
e-mail: s.s.dimov@bham.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO- AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received April 1, 2017; final manuscript received September 27, 2017; published online December 14, 2017. Editor: Nicholas Fang.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 6(1), 011001 (Dec 14, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: JMNM-17-1016; doi: 10.1115/1.4038097 History: Received April 01, 2017; Revised September 27, 2017

Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) have been gaining a significant attention by industry due to their compact design and light weight. Different fabrication methods have been reported and used for their manufacture but they are relatively expensive. This research proposes a new low-cost one-step fabrication method that utilizes nanosecond laser selective oxidation of titanium coatings on glass substrates and thus to form titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoscale films with different thicknesses by controlling the laser fluence and the scanning speed. In this way, phase-shifting FZPs were manufactured, where the TiO2 thin-films acted as a phase shifter for the reflected light, while the gain in phase depended on the film thickness. A model was created to analyze the performance of such FZPs based on the scalar theory. Finally, phase-shifting FZPs were fabricated for different operating wavelengths by varying the film thickness and a measurement setup was built to compare experimental and theoretical results. A good agreement between these results was achieved, and an FZP efficiency of 5.5% to 20.9% was obtained when varying the wavelength and the oxide thicknesses of the zones.

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Fig. 1

FZP types: (a) amplitude type, (b) planner phase type, (c) phase type, and (d) geometrical and optical design of the proposed FZP

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Fig. 2

Light interference in TiO2 films on Ti substrates: (a) appearance of reflected white light from an Air–TiO2–Ti system, (b) the phase shift versus the TiO2 thickness, (c) the amplitude (reflectance) versus the TiO2 thickness, and (d) the zone thickness leading to a (π) phase difference between consecutive zones for different film thicknesses and wavelengths

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Fig. 3

Theoretical results of FZP designed for the green (532 nm) light: (a) zones' reflectance, (b) zones' phase, (c) intensity profile at the focal plane, and (d) intensity distribution and axial intensity along the axis of propagation

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Fig. 4

Experimental setups: (a) the laser fabrication platform and (b) the optical measurement setup

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Fig. 7

Theoretical efficiency of FZPs when Fresnel losses are considered: (a) for the entire visible wavelength spectrum and (b) the efficiency and zones' reflectance versus odd zones' TiO2 thickness at wavelength of 532 nm

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Fig. 6

Results obtained for the FZP lens: (a) and (b) at the focal planes for both green (532 nm) and red (635 nm) lights, respectively

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Fig. 5

FZPs fabricated with the direct nanosecond laser writing: (a) fields associated with different TiO2 thicknesses; (b) and (c) lenses fabricated for a range of wavelengths with different combinations of TiO2 thicknesses; (d) the back view of the sample shown in (c); (e) microscopic image of the FZP lens, which performance was analyzed; and (f) microscopic images of lenses with defects/shortcomings



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