Research Papers

Response of High-Pressure Micro Water Jets to Static and Dynamic Nonuniform Electric Fields

[+] Author and Article Information
Yi Shi, Jian Cao, Kornel F. Ehmann

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern University,
Evanston, IL 60208

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MICRO-AND NANO-MANUFACTURING. Manuscript received October 14, 2017; final manuscript received February 26, 2018; published online March 20, 2018. Editor: Nicholas Fang.

J. Micro Nano-Manuf 6(2), 021006 (Mar 20, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: JMNM-17-1062; doi: 10.1115/1.4039507 History: Received October 14, 2017; Revised February 26, 2018

The manipulation of the trajectory of high-pressure micro water jets has the potential to greatly improve the accuracy of water jet related manufacturing processes. An experimental study was conducted to understand the basic static and dynamic responses of high-pressure micro water jet systems in the presence of nonuniform electric fields. A single electrode was employed to create a nonuniform electric field to deflect a high-pressure micro water jet toward the electrode by the dielectrophoretic force generated. The water jet's motions were precisely recorded by a high-speed camera with a 20× magnification and the videos postprocessed by a LabVIEW image processing program to acquire the deflections. The experiments revealed the fundamental relationships between three experimental parameters, i.e., voltage, pressure, and the distance between the water jet and the electrode and the deflection of the water jet in both nonuniform static and dynamic electric fields. In the latter case, electric signals at different frequencies were employed to experimentally investigate the jet's dynamic response, such as response time, frequency, and the stability of the water jet's motion. A first-order system model was proposed to approximate the jet's response to dynamic input signals. The work can serve as the basis for the development of closed-loop control systems for manipulating the trajectory of high-pressure micro water jets.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Folkes, J. , 2009, “ Waterjet—An Innovative Tool for Manufacturing,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 209(20), pp. 6181–6189. [CrossRef]
Jurisevic, B. , Kuzman, K. , and Junkar, M. , 2006, “ Water Jetting Technology: An Alternative in Incremental Sheet Metal Forming,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 31(1–2), pp. 18–23. [CrossRef]
Momber, A. W. , and Kovacevic, R. , 1998, Principles of Abrasive Water Jet Machining, Springer, London. [CrossRef]
Ehmann, K. F. , Bourell, D. , Culpepper, M. L. , Hodgson, T. J. , Kurfess, T. R. , Madou, M. , Rajurkar, K. , and DeVor, R. E. , 2005, “ International Assessment of Research and Development in Micromanufacturing,” Baltimore, MD, Final Report. http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA466761
Park, D. S. , Cho, M. W. , Lee, H. , and Cho, W. S. , 2004, “ Micro-Grooving of Glass Using Micro-Abrasive Jet Machining,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 146(2), pp. 234–240. [CrossRef]
Shin, B. S. , Park, K. S. , Bahk, Y. K. , Park, S. K. , Lee, J. H. , Go, J. S. , Kang, M. C. , and Lee, C. M. , 2009, “ Rapid Manufacturing of Sic Molds With Micro-Sized Holes Using Abrasive Water Jet,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 19(Supp. 1), pp. S178–S182. [CrossRef]
Pang, K. L. , Nguyen, T. , Fan, J. M. , and Wang, J. , 2012, “ A Study of Micro-Channeling on Glasses Using an Abrasive Slurry Jet,” Mach. Sci. Technol., 16(4), pp. 547–563. [CrossRef]
Richerzhagen, B. , Kutsuna, M. , Okada, H. , and Ikeda, T. , 2003, “ Waterjet-Guided Laser Processing,” Third International Symposium on Laser Precision Microfabrication, Osaka, Japan, May 27–31, pp. 91–94.
Richerzhagen, B. , Housh, R. , Wagner, F. , and Manley, J. , 2004, “ Water Jet Guided Laser Cutting: A Powerful Hybrid Technology for Fine Cutting and Grooving,” Advanced Laser Applications Conference and Exposition, Ann Arbor, MI, Sept. 20–22, pp. 175–181.
Li, C. F. , Johnson, D. B. , and Kovacevic, R. , 2003, “ Modeling of Waterjet Guided Laser Grooving of Silicon,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 43(9), pp. 925–936. [CrossRef]
Kray, D. , Hopman, S. , Spiegel, A. , Richerzhagen, B. , and Willeke, G. P. , 2007, “ Study on the Edge Isolation of Industrial Silicon Solar Cells With Waterjet-Guided Laser,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 91(17), pp. 1638–1644. [CrossRef]
Pauchard, A. , Spiegel, A. , and Richerzhagen, B. , 2008, “ Dicing of Hb-Led Devices Embedded in Copper or Copper Tungsten Substrates,” Conference Proceedings, 27th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (ICALEO), Temecula, CA, Oct. 10, Paper No. M101. https://www.lia.org/store/product/icaleo-2008-paper-m101-dicing-hb-led-devices-embedded-copper-substrates
Pauchard, A. , Di Marco, M. , Carron, B. , Suruceanu, G. , Richerzhagen, B. , Brulé, A. , and Kling, N. , 2008, “ Recent Developments in the Cutting of Ultra Hard Materials Using Water Jet-Guided Laser Technology,” ALAC Conference.
Perrottet, D. , Spiegel, A. , Amorosi, S. , and Richerzhagen, B. , 2005, “ Gaas-Wafer Dicing Using the Water Jet Guided Laser,” CS MANTECH Conference, New Orleans, LA. http://csmantech.org/OldSite/Digests/2005/2005papers/14.16.pdf
Pohl, H. A. , and Pohl, H. , 1978, Dielectrophoresis: The Behavior of Neutral Matter in Nonuniform Electric Fields, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
van den Driesche, S. , Rao, V. , Puchberger-Enengl, D. , Witarski, W. , and Vellekoop, M. J. , 2012, “ Continuous Cell From Cell Separation by Traveling Wave Dielectrophoresis,” Sens. Actuators B-Chem., 170, pp. 207–214. [CrossRef]
Chiarot, P. R. , and Jones, T. B. , 2009, “ Dielectrophoretic Deflection of Ink Jets,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 19(12), p. 125018. [CrossRef]
Doak, W. J. , Donovan, J. P. , and Chiarot, P. R. , 2013, “ Deflection of Continuous Droplet Streams Using High-Voltage Dielectrophoresis,” Exp. Fluids, 54(7), p. 1577. [CrossRef]
Hokmabad, B. V. , Faraji, S. , Dizajyekan, T. G. , Sadri, B. , and Esmaeilzadeh, E. , 2014, “ Electric Field-Assisted Manipulation of Liquid Jet and Emanated Droplets,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 65, pp. 127–137. [CrossRef]
Hokmabad, B. V. , Sadri, B. , Charan, M. R. , and Esmaeilzadeh, E. , 2012, “ An Experimental Investigation on Hydrodynamics of Charged Water Droplets in Dielectric Liquid Medium in the Presence of Electric Field,” Colloids Surf. A, 401, pp. 17–28. [CrossRef]
Mohanty, S. , Ehmann, K. , and Cao, J. , 2016, “ Manipulation of Water Jet Trajectory by a Nonuniform Electric Field in Water Jet Material Processing,” ASME J. Micro- Nano-Manuf., 4(2), p. 021003. [CrossRef]
Jones, T. B. , 2001, “ Liquid Dielectrophoresis on the Microscale,” J. Electrostat., 51–52, pp. 290–299. [CrossRef]
Pohl, H. A. , and Crane, J. S. , 1972, “ Dielectrophoretic Force,” J. Theor. Biol., 37(1), pp. 1–13. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Jackson, J. D. , 2007, Electrodynamics, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ. [CrossRef]
Couty, P. , Spiegel, A. , Vago, N. , Ugurtas, B. I. , and Hoffmann, P. , 2004, “ Laser-Induced Break-Up of Water Jet Waveguide,” Exp. Fluids, 36(6), pp. 919–927. [CrossRef]
Tafreshi, H. V. , Pourdeyhimi, B. , Holmes, R. , and Shiffler, D. , 2003, “ Simulating and Characterizing Water Flows Inside Hydroentangling Orifices,” Textile Res. J., 73(3), pp. 256–262. [CrossRef]
Iseki, H. , 2001, “ Flexible and Incremental Bulging of Sheet Metal Using High-Speed Water Jet,” JSME Int. J. Ser. C-Mech. Syst. Mach. Elem. Manuf., 44(2), pp. 486–493. [CrossRef]
Rowell, D. , and Wormley, D. N. , 1997, System Dynamics: An Introduction, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Saxena, I. , Malhotra, R. , Ehmann, K. , and Cao, J. , 2015, “ High-Speed Fabrication of Microchannels Using Line-Based Laser Induced Plasma Micromachining,” ASME J. Micro- Nano-Manuf., 3(2), p. 021006. [CrossRef]
Guo, P. , and Ehmann, K. F. , 2013, “ Development of a Tertiary Motion Generator for Elliptical Vibration Texturing,” Precis. Eng.-J. Int. Soc. Precis. Eng. Nanotechnol., 37(2), pp. 364–371.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Single electrode configuration and corresponding definition of the governing parameters

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of the experimental apparatus

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental setup with all the components and (b) partial magnification of the setup as marked by the square on the left

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Water jet deflection as the voltage increases (D is the total water jet deflection)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Water jet deflection (D) versus experimental parameters: (a) water jet deflection (D) versus distance (d), (b) water jet deflection (D) versus pressure (P), and (c) water jet deflection (D) versus voltage (V)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Linear regression for obtaining the unknown constant in the empirical equation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Water jet deflection versus time for four types of waveforms at 10 Hz (d = 300 μm, P = 17.24 MPa)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Prediction model for water jet deflection versus time for four types of waveforms at 10 Hz (d = 300 μm, P = 17.24 MPa)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Prediction model for water jet deflection versus time for four types of waveforms at 100 Hz (d = 300 μm, P = 17.24 MPa)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Prediction model for water jet deflection versus time for four types of waveforms at 500 Hz (d = 300 μm, P = 17.24 MPa)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Dynamic response to 500 Hz square signal under different water pressure: (a) time constant versus water pressure with prediction mode, (b) water jet deflection versus time fitted with simulated response for simple first-order system under 17.24 MPa, (c) 34.47 MPa, (d) 68.95 MPa, (e) 103.42 MPa, and (f) 137.90 MP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Water jet deflection versus time for 1 kHz and 2 kHz square signals at P = 17.24 MPa



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In