Articular cartilage is known to behave nonlinearly for large deformations. Mechanical properties derived from small strain experiments yield excessively large deformations in finite element models used in the study of severe blunt impact to joints. In this manuscript, a method is presented to determine the nonlinear elastic properties of biphasic cartilage based on a transversely isotropic hypo-elastic model. The elastic properties were estimated by fitting two force-displacement curves (in rapid loading and at equilibrium) obtained from large deformation indentation relaxation tests on cartilage using a nonporous spherical indentor. The solid skeleton of the cartilage was modeled as a transversely isotropic hypo-elastic material and a commercial finite element program was employed to solve the problem of a layer indented by a rigid sphere. Components of the hypo-elasticity tensor were made dependent on deformation according to the variations defined by a transversely isotropic hyperelastic formulation given earlier by others. Material incompressibility was assumed during the initial stage of rapid loading. The analysis was utilized for the determination of in situ properties of rabbit retropatellar cartilage at large deformations. The model was able to fit the material response to rapid loading and equilibrium indentation test data to approximately 50 percent strain. This material model suggested even higher percentage of stress supported by the fluid phase of cartilage than given earlier by small deformation theories of biphasic cartilage. [S0148-0731(00)01401-1]
Estimation of in Situ Elastic Properties of Biphasic Cartilage Based on a Transversely Isotropic Hypo-Elastic Model
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manusript received by the Bioengineering Division August 3, 1998; revised manuscript received September 1, 1999. Associate Technical Editor: R. Vanderby, Jr.
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Garcia , J. J., Altiero , N. J., and Haut , R. C. (September 1, 1999). "Estimation of in Situ Elastic Properties of Biphasic Cartilage Based on a Transversely Isotropic Hypo-Elastic Model ." ASME. J Biomech Eng. February 2000; 122(1): 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.429622
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