Research studies over the last three decades have established that hemodynamic interactions with the vascular surface as well as surgical injury are inciting mechanisms capable of eliciting distal anastomotic intimal hyperplasia (IH) and ultimate bypass graft failure. While abnormal wall shear stress (WSS) conditions have been widely shown to affect vascular biology and arterial wall self-regulation, the near-wall localization of critical blood particles by convection and diffusion may also play a significant role in IH development. It is hypothesized that locations of elevated platelet interactions with reactive or activated vascular surfaces, due to injury or endothelial dysfunction, are highly susceptible to IH initialization and progression. In an effort to assess the potential role of platelet-wall interactions, experimentally validated particle-hemodynamic simulations have been conducted for two commonly implemented end-to-side anastomotic configurations, with and without proximal outflow. Specifically, sites of significant particle interactions with the vascular surface have been identified by a novel near-wall residence time (NWRT) model for platelets, which includes shear stress-based factors for platelet activation as well as endothelial cell expression of thrombogenic and anti-thrombogenic compounds. Results indicate that the composite NWRT model for platelet-wall interactions effectively captures a reported shift in significant IH formation from the arterial floor of a relatively high-angle (30 deg) graft with no proximal outflow to the graft hood of a low-angle graft (10 deg) with 20% proximal outflow. In contrast, other WSS-based hemodynamic parameters did not identify the observed system-dependent shift in IH formation. However, large variations in WSS-vector magnitude and direction, as encapsulated by the WSS-gradient and WSS-angle-gradient parameters, were consistently observed along the IH-prone suture-line region. Of the multiple hemodynamic factors capable of eliciting a hyperplastic response at the cellular level, results of this study indicate the potential significance of platelet-wall interactions coinciding with regions of low WSS in the development of IH.
Numerical Simulation of Wall Shear Stress Conditions and Platelet Localization in Realistic End-to-Side Arterial Anastomoses
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Bioengineering Division December 3, 2002; revision received February 7, 2003. Associate Editor: C. Dong.
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Longest , P. W., and Kleinstreuer, C. (October 9, 2003). "Numerical Simulation of Wall Shear Stress Conditions and Platelet Localization in Realistic End-to-Side Arterial Anastomoses ." ASME. J Biomech Eng. October 2003; 125(5): 671–681. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1613298
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