The annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disk experiences multidirectional tension in vivo, yet the majority of mechanical property testing has been uniaxial. Therefore, our understanding of how this complex multilayered tissue responds to loading may be deficient. This study aimed to determine the mechanical properties of porcine annular samples under uniaxial and biaxial tensile loading. Two-layer annulus samples were isolated from porcine disks from four locations: anterior superficial, anterior deep, posterior superficial, and posterior deep. These tissues were then subjected to three deformation conditions each to a maximal stretch ratio of 1.23: uniaxial, constrained uniaxial, and biaxial. Uniaxial deformation was applied in the circumferential direction, while biaxial deformation was applied simultaneously in the circumferential and compressive directions. Constrained uniaxial consisted of a stretch ratio of 1.23 in the circumferential direction while holding the tissue stationary in the axial direction. The maximal stress and stress-stretch ratio (S-S) moduli determined from the biaxial tests were significantly higher than those observed during both the uniaxial tests (maximal stress, 97.1% higher during biaxial; ; S-S moduli, 117.9% higher during biaxial; ) and the constrained uniaxial tests (maximal stress, 46.8% higher during biaxial; S-S moduli, 82.9% higher during biaxial). These findings suggest that the annulus is subjected to higher stresses in vivo when under multidirectional tension.
A Comparison of Uniaxial and Biaxial Mechanical Properties of the Annulus Fibrosus: A Porcine Model
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Gregory, D. E., and Callaghan, J. P. (January 31, 2011). "A Comparison of Uniaxial and Biaxial Mechanical Properties of the Annulus Fibrosus: A Porcine Model." ASME. J Biomech Eng. February 2011; 133(2): 024503. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4003327
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