Head injuries account for 15%–20% of all military injuries and pose a high risk of causing functional disability and fatality. Blunt ballistic impacts are one of the threats that can lead to severe head injuries. This review aims to examine the mechanisms and injury risk assessment associated with blunt ballistic head injury (BBHI). The review further discusses research methods and instrumentation used in BBHI studies, focusing on their limitations and challenges. Studies on the mechanisms of focal and diffuse brain injuries remain largely inconclusive and require further effort. Some studies have attempted to associate BBHIs with head mechanics, but more research is required to establish correlations between head mechanics and injury severity. Limited access to experimental models and a lack of instrumentation capable of measuring the mechanics of brain tissue in situ are potential reasons for the lack of understanding of injury mechanisms, injury correlations, and injury tolerance levels specific to this loading regime. Targeted research for understanding and assessing head injuries in blunt ballistic impacts is a necessary step in improving our ability to design protection systems to mitigate these injuries.