This study aimed to perform quantitative biomechanical analysis for probing the effect of varying thread shapes in an implant for improved primary stability in prosthodontics surgery. Dental implants were designed with square (SQR), buttress (BUT), and triangular (TRI) thread shapes or their combinations. Cone-beam computed tomography images of mandible molar zones in human subjects belonging to three age groups were used for virtual implantation of the designed implants, to quantify patient-specific peri-implant bone microstrain, using finite element analyses. The in silico analyses were carried out considering frictional contact to simulate immediate loading with a static masticatory force of 200 N. To validate computational biomechanics results, compression tests were performed on three-dimensional printed implants having the investigated thread architectures. Bone/implant contact areas were also quantitatively assessed. It was observed that, bone/implant contact was maximum for SQR implants followed by BUT and TRI implants. For all the cases, peak microstrain was recorded in the cervical cortical bone. The combination of different thread shapes in the middle or in the apical part (or both) was demonstrated to improve peri-implant microstrain, particularly for BUT and TRI. Considering 1500–2000 microstrain generates in the peri-implant bone during regular physiological functioning, BUT-SQR, BUT-TRI-SQR, TRI-SQR-BUT, SQR, and SQR-BUT-TRI design concepts were suitable for younger; BUT-TRI-SQR, BUT-SQR-TRI, TRI-SQR-BUT, SQR-BUT, SQR-TRI for middle-aged, and BUT-TRI-SQR, BUT-SQR-TRI, TRI-BUT-SQR, SQR, and SQR-TRI for the older group of human patients.